The tenses in Spanish
1. Imperfect- Used for past continual or habitual
actions. Equivalent in English= I was doing
Endings: for -er/-ir verbs: -ía, -ías, -ía, -iamos,
-ar verbs: -aba, -abas, -aba, -ábamos, -aban
2. Subjunctive- Used for wishes and things that have
not yet happened. Always needs the word ‘que.’
Equivalent in English= I want you to sleep, or when
translated word for word, I want that you sleep.
Endings: -er/-ir verbs: use the -ar endings, except
for the yo form, you use the same thing that you would
use for the el/ella/usted ending
-ar verbs: Use -er endings, except for yo (see above)
3. Future- instead of using the auxiliary verb will,
an ending is placed on the infinitive. Equivalent in
English: I will go.
Endings: for all: infinitive + -é, -ás, -á, -ámos, -án
4. Imperfect subjunctive- Used after the word if.
Equivalent in English: If I were you.
Endings: -ir/-er verbs: -iera, -ieras, -iera,
-ar: infinitive + -e, -as, -a, -emos, -an
5. Conditional- Used instead of the auxiliary verb
would, an ending is placed on the infinitive.
Equivalent in English- I would go.
Endings: for all: infinitive + -ía, -ías, -ía, -iamos,
6. Participle- Used for very recent events, or
events that have continued until the present time.
Equivalent in English: I have gone.
Use: use a conjugated form of the verb haber, which
means “to have” when referring to participles, and the
participle of the verb (take off the r at the end of
an -ar and -ir verb and add –do, for -er verbs, use
the same as -ir verbs)
Present: He <participle>, Has <participle>, Ha
<participle>, Hemos <participle>, Han <participle>
Past: Hube <participle>, Hubiste <participle>, Hubo
<participle>, Hubimos <participle>, Hubieron
Future: Haberé <participle>, Haberás <participle>,
Haberá <participle>, Haberámos <participle>, Haberán
Conditional: Habería <Participle>, Haberías
<Participle>, Habería <Participle>, Haberíamos
<Participle>, Haberían <Participle>
7. Imperative- Used for commands. Equivalent in
English: Go away.
Use: for regular verbs, just use the el/ella/usted
ending. In most irregular verbs, take off the ending